Return to Sender

V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai — the MIT lecturer who invented e-mail — had spent years blasting the struggling United States Postal Service for its failure to embrace the revenue potential of his creation. So when he was recruited to help save the U.S. Mail earlier this year, Ayyadurai made headlines and was suddenly a star. That’s when the trouble started.

V.A. Shiva Ayyaduri

V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai at his home in Belmont. (Photo by Miller Mobley.)

On a warm evening in the middle of march, V.A. Shiva Ayyudarai sat in the front row of a packed auditorium at the MIT media lab.

Dressed in a black blazer and T-shirt, Ayyadurai was on comfortable turf. He had four degrees from the Institute, lectured in two of its departments, and, at 48, had earned his place on a campus where success is measured in the number of businesses launched and millions earned.

Ayyadurai — known to everyone as Shiva — has been a Fulbright scholar, a Lemelson-MIT student prize nominee, and the entrepreneurial brains behind seven businesses, including EchoMail, a $200 million company that counted Nike, the U.S. Senate, and the Clinton White House as customers. But his greatest achievement came when he was just 14 and living with his immigrant parents in New Jersey. Back then, toiling away in his spare time, Shiva had invented e-mail, an accomplishment that would, in time, change the course of human communication — a fact not lost on Shiva, whose personal website is called

For all his spectacular successes, Shiva was most proud of devising e-mail. Yet he’d been plagued for decades by a guilty sense that his invention had led to the unraveling of another great component of human — or at least American — communication: the United States Postal Service. Since as far back as 1997, Shiva had been trying to get the post office to imagine a world beyond merely delivering letters and packages, to embrace and profit from the growing business of e-mail. But for reasons he’d never understood, the U.S. Mail had been content to keep things as they were. Last fall, when the post office announced massive layoffs and service cuts in a desperate scramble to deal with its billions in debt, Shiva had had enough. “I think that if the Postal Service dies,” Shiva said at the time, “it will be the end of democracy as we know it.” He proposed that the post office create a new form of e-mail, one that was safe, private, and subject to the same federal regulations that protect the bills and junk mail that are delivered to our mailboxes. He was flummoxed by the agency’s ineptitude: “What the f*#@ was the #USPS management doing for 10 years?” he tweeted. “They should have owned EMAIL …. ” Caustic comments like these coming from the inventor of e-mail sparked the interest of the media, and soon Shiva was being quoted in Fast Company and Time magazines.

Then, in a breakthrough, the post office’s inspector general came calling, asking Shiva for his ideas on how they could enter the digital age. A few weeks later, the Smithsonian announced that it was accepting the documents from Shiva’s adolescent e-mail work into its archives, where they would be counted among other great inventions like the telegraph, the light bulb, and the artificial heart. While he was in DC to hand off his papers, the Washington Post recorded a video series with Shiva and published a fawning profile of him.

Now he was at the MIT Media Lab with a group of experts he’d assembled for a panel discussion on “The Future of the Post Office.” Among the participants was the Postal Service’s inspector general himself, David Williams. Thirty years after inventing e-mail, Shiva had now positioned himself to solve a national crisis. His moment had arrived. But he kept looking nervously around the room.


V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai grew up in Newark, the brilliant son of Indian parents who’d moved to the United States from Bombay when he was seven. He says his journey to inventing e-mail began seven years later, when, in 1978, he learned the computer code ­FORTRAN IV at a summer course at New York University and soon lost interest in the day-to-day rigors of school, telling his parents that he didn’t feel challenged and might drop out. So one day his mother brought him to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, where she was a data systems analyst, and asked a colleague whether there was any-thing her son could do.

That colleague, Les Michelson, had been working with computers to automate research in the hospital’s labs, and was looking for ways to apply the technology to the office setting. “I had this idea that we were going to take memoranda and automate them and eliminate paper,” he recalls. He invited Shiva to assist with the project. For the next two and a half years, Shiva spent his nights and weekends at the hospital, eventually taking over leadership of Michelson’s team. Using computers connected through a localized server, he created a tool that gave hospital employees a digital mailbox where they could exchange messages and attachments. He called the system EMAIL.

In 1981 Shiva, then 16 and applying for a Westinghouse Science Talent Search award, envisioned a future for his program: “When Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, he never perceived that this invention would have such world-wide acceptance and acclaim; however, it has … ” he wrote. “One day, electronic mail, like Edison’s bulb, may also permeate and pervade our daily lives.” That September, he enrolled at MIT, where a cover story in Tech Talk noted his accomplishment and introduced him as one of the stars of the class of 1985.

Before his sophomore year, Shiva registered a copyright for his EMAIL program. He majored in electrical engineering and computer science (and also researched the Indian caste system while studying under Noam Chomsky). After graduation, he went on to earn dual masters and a doctorate from the Institute. He started EchoMail in 1995, and somewhere in the late ’90s he started calling himself “Dr. Email” in the company’s press releases.


In the middle of February, Shiva arrived in DC to hand over his e-mail documents to the Smithsonian. On February 17, the Post ran its glowing article about his work as a teenager and his plans for the post office. “Innovation actually demands freedom,” he told the paper, “and freedom demands innovation.” It wasn’t long, though, before serious questions were being raised about Shiva’s claims.

A few days after the Post article ran, Thomas Haigh received a disturbing e-mail from his wife. Haigh is a computer historian and assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee who also chairs the Special Interest Group on Computers, Information and Society — a sort of Internet cabal within the Society for the History of Technology. The e-mail linked to an online discussion about the Post piece. Furious, Haigh immediately fired off an e-mail to his colleagues.

“Did you know that email was invented in 1978 by a 14-year-old called V.A.Shiva Ayyadura [sic]?,” a sarcastic Haigh wrote. “The shocking news was broken recently by the Washington Post.” Haigh then laid out a point-by-point takedown of Shiva’s claims. E-mail was created in 1978? “Mail features became common on the timesharing computers of the late 1960s,” the professor scolded. “MIT is a strong contender for the first place where this happened.” He went on to note that the first computer-to-computer message exchange took place over the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, or ARPANET—the Pentagon-funded underpinning of the modern Internet that enabled hundreds of computer programming students to access government-owned supercomputers from satellite sites across the country in the ’60s and ’70s. Citing Janet Abbate’s 1999 book Inventing the Internet, Haigh reminded the group that network mail was a “killer application” … in 1971.

Haigh lamented that the Post had been duped into believing that Shiva’s copyright for a program called “EMAIL” equated to the actual invention of e-mail. And he wasn’t the only skeptic. David Crocker, an early ARPANET user and the author of some of its most highly regarded messaging protocols, was forwarded the story by a friend, who warned: “This will ruin your day.” John Vittal, credited with creating the ARPANET’s MSG program, one of its most admired and heavily used messaging tools, was notified of the story by worked-up former colleagues. Meanwhile, Carnegie Mellon’s Dave Farber, who’s been called “one of the most influential nerds in the United States,” sent Haigh’s response to the article to his “Interesting People” listserv of heavy hitters, tagging it “worth reading.”

Tech blogs quickly picked up on the chatter. Techdirt, a digital water cooler for geeks, excerpted Haigh’s e-mail, and linked to Shiva’s Wikipedia page, where the site’s editors were fighting over how to identify him. Gizmodo summed the whole thing up tidily, running a picture of Shiva’s face with a one-word question plastered across it: “Imposter?”


Shiva’s chorus of doubters had been young men — a fraternity of sorts — when they’d started using the ARPANET, and now here was some interloper they’d never heard of taking credit for their work. And the more these geeks, who saw themselves as the true fathers of e-mail, dug into Shiva’s story, the more enraged they became.

They quickly discovered the Time magazine article, in which Shiva dismissed earlier ARPANET messaging systems as rudimentary “text messaging” programs. They found that on August 31, 2011, Shiva had edited Wikipedia’s e-mail entry to say that “the term ‘EMAIL’ was officially coined by V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, who received the first copyright for EMAIL in 1982.” From there they uncovered heated conversations involving Shiva and Wikipedia editors, who’d charged that Shiva’s edits were self-promotional, and thereby invalid. “Why are you blocking me??!” Shiva had asked the editors.

“This might come across as strange,” one editor replied, “but Wikipedia is not so much interested in ‘the truth,’ but what is verifiable.”

Haigh and his crowd wrote polite — though stern — missives to the Smithsonian and the Post explaining how their ARPANET work on e-mail predated Shiva’s. They littered the comments section of the Post and the Smithsonian websites with requests for corrections. The Smithsonian eventually backpedaled, issuing a clarification on February 24 stating that it had accepted Shiva’s EMAIL documentation not because he was the “inventor of email,” but because of his role in “computer education,” and of EMAIL’s use in “medical research.” That same day, Patrick Pexton, the Post’s ombudsman, shot off a blog post responding to the criticism the paper’s story was generating. “Who invented e-mail?” he wrote. “Crikey, I don’t know. Maybe Al Gore.” (It should be noted that if you’re attempting not to piss off a growing riot of computer scientists, this is probably not the best opening salvo.) Pexton defended the article, arguing that while journalists respect and value facts, they cannot subject all stories to the same scrutiny as academics under journal review.

Being dismissed by the ombudsman of a major newspaper served only to further enrage the geeks. “It totally energized our community,” David Crocker told me. Adds John Vittal: “There was a sense of anger at the reporter and the [Smithsonian] for allowing this nonsense to be promulgated. We wanted to get at the truth.” Haigh, for his part, penned a letter to the editor that eviscerated Pexton’s blog. “There are dozens, maybe hundreds, of people who could plausibly claim to have achieved some kind of significant incremental ‘first’ in the development of email,” he wrote. “On the other hand there are billions of people who clearly didn’t invent email …. Unfortunately for Pexton and the Washington Post, V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai is one of the billions …. ”

Pexton, suddenly realizing that he’d incited an Internet mob, published a follow-up blog post a few days later disavowing his earlier defense of the reporter’s work, apologizing for his own errors, and noting that, upon further investigation, Shiva “should not have been called ‘inventor of e-mail’ in the headline.” A lengthy and rather convoluted correction was added to the online version of the piece.

But the geeks still weren’t done. They e-mailed the faculty, staff, and trustees at MIT, where many of them had been during their ARPANET days. Why, they asked, was Shiva promoting himself on his website as the head of the MIT EMAIL Lab — which Shiva created to “invent innovative solutions for addressing challenges faced in the field of communication by today’s organizations”? Why, they demanded to know, was the Institute affiliating itself with someone of such questionable character? Within days, MIT told Shiva that it no longer wanted to be associated with the EMAIL Lab. Several MIT professors also gave off-the-record quotes to Gizmodo, calling Shiva an “asshole,” a “dick,” and a “loon.” The website also pointed out that Shiva had purchased more than 100 vanity URLs —,, etc. — that redirected you to his personal website. Others noted he’d authored a book: The Internet Publicity Guide: How to Maximize Your Marketing and Promotion in Cyberspace.

It was crushing, humiliating stuff, but to the geeks, entirely warranted. “There is no inventor of e-mail,” Vittal says flatly. That may well be so, but Shiva is far from the first programmer to receive this kind of withering criticism. Computer pioneers are volatile, says Crocker, ARPANET’s protocol guru: “This is not a community that’s reticent with criticism.” Vittal, actually, knows that firsthand. Shortly after his MSG program began to be widely adopted by ARPANET users, he says, competing programmers scoffed at the notion that his work was anything revolutionary. They’d come down with a “case of NIH syndrome,” he explains. NIH? “Not invented here,” he says. In other words, “If I didn’t invent it, it doesn’t exist.”

V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai

(V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai photo by Miller Mobley)

It’s early March, just days after the Internet has gone ballistic, when I meet Shiva for the first time. We’re in his office on the MIT campus and he’s eager to talk, exuding the patience of a teacher willing to explain things to a perplexed student. Wearing a black T-shirt under a dark- brown corduroy jacket, he’s in constant motion as we speak, using a whiteboard, drawing sketches on a pad, and pulling up articles on his laptop.

No matter what anyone says, he tells me, his EMAIL program was the first of its kind.

The ARPANET, he insists, was not created for the purpose of messaging. That much is agreed upon. In the 1998 bestseller Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet, Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon write that the “network was intended for resource-sharing, period.”

Most credit Ray Tomlinson of Cambridge-based BBN Technologies with being the first person, back in 1971, to send messages between computer terminals (he used the “@” sign to create an address). Dozens of others built upon Tomlinson’s work, devising their own methods of sharing notes on the network. Shiva describes those earlier systems—the MSGs, SNDMSGs, and other ARPANET programs—as merely “hacks,” or the equivalent of simply sending text messages back and forth. His system, on the other hand, was invented specifically for the office environment, with secretaries, not computer scientists, in mind. It was elegant, comprehensive, and easy to use. He argues that this whole controversy is an example of elitist, ivory-tower institutions wanting to control the story of innovation. Perhaps, but isn’t Shiva sitting at this very moment in an office in an ivory-tower institution, from which he’s received four degrees? He tells me that this whole thing is a “malevolent narrative” created to attack him for being different. His critics simply can’t accept that something remarkable could come out of a medical and dental school in New Jersey, never mind the fact that it was done by a teenager born in India. “When I claim I did it, and I can speak well, and I don’t look like a nerd, that’s seen as PR,” he says, his voice rising in anger. “That’s what’s interesting. And Ray Tomlinson is called humble. I’m sorry, but Ray Tomlinson didn’t create anything — he created the @ sign. He has to be humble.”

Shiva explains that he grew tired of being humble about his own role in creating e-mail after spending time in India in 2009 working for a government agency there that helped inventors launch companies. He quickly found the agency rife with corruption: Patents were stolen, innovation was stymied, and scientists toiled for years without ever getting credit for their work. So he wrote a 47-page memo, “CSIR-Tech: Path Forward,” and e-mailed it to some 4,000 scientists. The memo opened, bizarrely, with a poem dedicated to the agency’s scientists, who dream “to become next generation of innovators/That great India so sorely needs/To break from draconian past/And vainglorious visions/Seeking press and limelight of ‘I.’” From there, he described an organization with a “culture of sycophants” that was prone to “deflections and cover ups.”

Shiva says he was fired three days after sending out the document, and was kicked out of government housing and had his e-mail account turned off. His offense was violating an Indian law against sending “slanderous” e-mails.

His memo did become international news, but not for the reasons he’d hoped. Scientists decried his unprofessional conduct. Government officials claimed he’d demanded a tremendous salary. He tells me that threats were made against his life, forcing him to sneak out of the country by way of Nepal. His marriage dissolved in the months that followed. “I’ve been through a lot,” he says, his voice catching.

He may have been defeated in India, he tells me, but he’s not going quietly this time. “If they want a fight, they’re going to get a fight,” he says. “A freaking big fight.” He says he and Chomsky are preparing op-eds, which are scheduled to appear in the Post alongside counter-point pieces from Thomas Haigh and David Crocker. “They think they own the story line,” he says. “Now after this fight, I’m laying all claims to it …. We can bring in a thousand historians and they will prove in my favor.”


Over the next several weeks, I have conversations with several historians (though not thousands), all of whom are quick to point out that history is rife with stories of feuds between inventors (Alexander Graham Bell famously — some would say suspiciously — submitted the patent for a telephone on the very same day in 1876 as fellow inventor Elisha Gray). “This is an incredibly common story,” Deborah Douglas, the curator of science and technology at the MIT Museum, says of Shiva’s claims. “There is not a significant invention that has not been accompanied by virtually identical narratives of dissent and disagreement.”

Shiva dismisses this line of reasoning, directing me to the work of Tim Wu, who teaches copyright and communications law at the Columbia Law School. Wu’s book The Master Switch posits that the critical media inventions of recent centuries were the work of “lone inventors” and that “many revolutionary innovations start small, with outsiders, amateurs, and idealists in attics or garages.”

In Wu’s work, Shiva sees support for his claim to being the one true inventor of e-mail. But while all the historians I spoke with were familiar with the history of messaging over ARPANET, none had heard of Shiva’s work prior to the controversy. When I ask whether Shiva could be the actual inventor, each of them can point to other programs that predate his system. For instance, Marc Weber, the founding curator of the Computer History Museum, tells me that “By modern standards, the number of people using electronic mail in 1978 was tiny, but the medium was getting mature.” By 1978, the year Shiva says he invented e-mail, the first spam message had already filtered through ARPANET channels, enraging the community. There were emoticons, mailing lists, and flame wars. “Nearly all of the features we’re familiar with today had appeared on one system or another over the previous dozen years,” Weber says. “I would not be surprised if, as a brilliant and motivated 14-year-old…he unknowingly reinvented many of the features of e-mail which had come before.”

Naturally, Shiva dismisses Weber’s opinion (and questions the depth of his knowledge). In fact, he claims Weber’s museum excluded him from its new e-mail history exhibit because he gave his papers to the Smithsonian instead. Throughout our many conversations, Shiva always pointed to his copyright in 1982 as the first time the phrase “e-mail” entered into the public domain: “If they were so brilliant or on top of it, why didn’t they call it e-mail?” he asks me one day. “They didn’t call it e-mail because it wasn’t e-mail.” (That too is debatable, as CompuServe was advertising a messaging program called Email as early as 1982.)

Shiva, in other words, is convinced that he fits the profile of Wu’s lone inventor. But does he? “Typically,” Wu tells me, “someone claims to have invented something before someone else, and their claim is to be the ‘actual’ inventor. In Shiva’s case, he claims that he invented something after it was invented, but just in a more profound way.”

Or, as Richard John, a communications historian at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, tells me, “If a bus had hit Shiva two years before he won the Westinghouse Prize, the history of e-mail would not have been changed a bit.”


It’s just moments before Shiva’s panel on “The Future of the Post Office” is about to begin at MIT, and he looks agitated. His brow is furrowed as he swivels his head, looking around the room. The truth is, I’m somewhat surprised, given all the controversy, that the Institute has gone forward with this event at all. Shiva’s detractors contacted several of the panelists, demanding that it be ­canceled to save the reputation of the school.

You can feel the tension in the room as David Thorburn, director of MIT’s communications forum, steps to the podium.“I’ve received a number of thoughtful and sometimes not-so-thoughtful messages on e-mail in the past weeks from MIT alumni and others,” Thornburn says. “But today’s event is not about the history of e-mail, nor about Shiva himself. It’s about the future of the post office.”

Shiva walks up to the podium, thanks Thorburn, and reiterates his statement. “This is not about me,” he says. The session goes off without incident. Williams, the post office’s inspector general, is on the panel, and so is Columbia’s Richard John. No mention is made of the controversy, and when the video is posted online, David Thorburn’s opening comments have been edited out.

When I visit Shiva at his Belmont home one afternoon a few weeks later, the rooms are devoid of personal effects, save for a suitcase in the living room that his mother, who died this past January, left him. It’s stuffed with his papers, prizes, and awards. Shiva is quiet, and he picks at his plate of food as he looks out the huge plate-glass windows of his dining room.

His life has begun to unravel. MIT may have gone ahead with his panel, but since then his speaking engagements have been canceled, the funding for his EMAIL lab has evaporated, and his contract to lecture in MIT’s bioengineering department has been revoked. And those op-eds he and Chomsky wrote never ran in the Post. Shiva says he’s angry at the media for succumbing to pressure from the geeks. He’s also angry at the MIT administration for failing to stand by him. He recently lashed out in an e-mail to William Uricchio, the director of MIT’s comparative media studies program: “My name is SHIT on the Internet. My institution simply let me get fucked, and walked away out of fear that their reputation was getting ruined by associating with a ‘fraud …. ’ You and other academics can have armchair discussions all day on the notion of ‘innovation’ versus ‘invention.’ There is no theory here — I created EMAIL. The facts are there.”

All is not lost for Shiva, though. The Postal Service has given Shiva a contract to continue sharing his ideas on e-mail management. But that’s done little to dampen his sense that he’s been wronged. So Shiva and his teaching assistant, Devon Sparks, have begun a quixotic quest to fight the institutional giants he says are attempting to “steal” his story. They’ve assembled a dossier of the attacks against him, and have examined every messaging program that existed prior to his own to demonstrate exactly how his system is unique. Shiva insists that Crocker, Haigh, and others have twisted the facts in an elaborate effort to make sure their version of history gets told. The way Shiva sees it, “Crocker is just a liar. They’re making stuff up on their websites.” Further evidence of the conspiracy came in late April, when the Internet Society announced that Ray Tomlinson was being inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame for his e-mail work. Shiva insinuates to me that the Internet Society created the hall of fame to further discredit him. It wasn’t until just this February, he points out, that the URL was registered.

At press time, Shiva and his attorney, John Bradley, were preparing letters to send to his detractors. “People are trying to reinvent how the Internet and e-mail came to us. And we can’t reinvent history,” Bradley tells me. “Very shortly, people will be put on notice, and we will give them all a chance to retract what they said.”

I call up Shiva’s sister, Uma ­Dhanabalan, a doctor in Seattle. “I worry about him,” she tells me. But she believes him, and believes the rest of the world will one day realize the truth. “Shiva is the name of the lord of creation and destruction in the Hindu religion,” she says. “And Shiva” — her brother — “is truly the creator. He will fight for destruction if it means fighting for justice. And he will die in that fight for justice, at any cost.”


  • ArtisanalBrewer78

    Great article! Wish I was back in Boston. Very inspiring story on Dr. Ayyadurai. I also read Now I know what email really is — hope the USPS gets on board. Thanks again. Also, loved the beer story.

    • Julius Bass

      Nice article Ms. Nanos! As a person of color, it’s good to see some news on minorities in your magazine, and be introduced to VA Shiva Ayyadurai, the inventor of email.

      I was taken aback though when I found this on a white supremacist site trashing Dr. Ayyadurai — considering it insane that a “black man” Ayyadurai could have invented email.


      • Teus

        The racism and irrational denial of Dr. Ayyadurai’s invention of email are beyond belief.

        In particular, the BBN insiders think that no one is going to connect the dots and realize that V.A. Shiva is the inventor of email ( ).

        BBN has the most to gain financially by continuing to promote its false brand. People are entitled to their own opinions but not to their own “facts.”

        • David Moran

          These three comments are as bogus as Shiva the impostor himself. (They also smell laughably of being plants.) BBN has nothing to gain from anything involving email, nor does anyone else except for guess who. There’s no racism going on, either, just a sad, demonstrable fraud. As for being a Fulbright *scholar*, well, I mean, check it out.

        • Teus

          BBN’s web site has got a big fat “@” symbol with their bearded mascot Tomlinson claiming himself as “inventor of email”! How much more blatant does it need to get??!!

          So if “Moran”, below, can’t see the link between email and BBN, then he needs to change the a to an o in his name.

          Oh, and for the facts, which is what “scholars” do focus on, check out clearly showing why BBN and Tomlinson DID NOT invent email.

        • Teus


          • David Moran

            Quit going to Shiva’s self-shill for cred, jeez. BBN gets no moneys from rightly pointing out its intellectual history.

            (And I have never heard that joke about my name! Good one, Teus!)

            If you are going to misleadingly opine about scholarship in this pathetic saga, at least refer people to an actual working scholar in the area, and his demolition of ol’ Shiva:


            I mean, seriously.

          • Teus

            Haigh a “scholar”?! Any fool knows that SIGCIS is just a cabal of self-promoting freaks disguised as “historians” When you get time, do read some facts:


            Where “Haigh’s” masquerading days as a “scholar” and “historian” are E X P O S E D.

            Come on, you really should add that “O” to your name.

            But, I suppose you standard of “scholar”, is Haigh, whose primary reference is GIZMODO and Sam Biddle, the “journalist” who couldn’t even get the story of an Internet dog “boo” right.

            Oh, and, let’s not forget that this “scholar’s” post was REJECTED by the Washington Post!

            Boo Hoo.

          • David Moran

            Shiv, everyone can see it’s you and yours here commenting in your lame defense.

        • Wayne

          Hi Guys
          Come to Australia. The No:1 Racist country in the world.

      • ArtisanalBrewer78


        Look, I think the story is an inspiring one, regardless of the race. Have no idea who BBN is. Is that the big Ad Agency in Maryland? Ayyadurai is a bit crazy, the stuff in India sounded a bit out there.


        • RagingBull

          Hello Mr. Artisanal

          I am from India. That stuff in India was real and Dr. Ayyadurai was really attacked by the government. I know you in America may think it is crazy, but it was big news here in 2009 — all over the press. He really risked his life. No joking.

          I refer you to this which was on PRIME TIME INDIAN TV:

        • RagingBull

          Also, Mr Artisanal,

          PM Bhargava, the most eminent scientist of India, wrote to the Prime Minister of India stating that Dr. Ayyadurai’s 47-page report exposing corruption in India was “excellent” and “accurate”, in full support of Dr. Ayyadurai.

          Here are two references:

          (2) Letter from Dr. Bhargava to the Prime Minister of India:

          I think in America your journalists have gotten used to calling anyone crazy if they actually stand up and speak the truth.

      • dave

        As a person with 2 legs I am thrilled this article is about another person with 2 legs. However, I am appalled to find an opposing article on the internet implying men with 2 legs cannot drink milk!

        Julius also seems to miss the entire point of the article: did Shiva invent email?

        Enjoy your colour Julius. How many legs have you got?

    • Catherine Blythe

      Ms. Nanos thx for the reference to ! After reading it, I was very moved and inspired — V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai is clearly the inventor of email.

      It’s unfortunate that a bunch of bullies who support Raytheon/BBN think that they can continue to perpetuate false claims about email: and hijack the innovation from a 14-year-old boy, who in 1978, clearly is the father of email.


      • InventorOfFraud.Com

        You guys need to hire a new PR team. This is embarrassing.

        • tbetz

          They were probably all posted from the same IP address.

          • Anmol@MIT

            Lol! I can just see it now. Poor ol’ Shiva, hunched over his keyboard furiously creating sock-puppet accounts to aid him in his righteous fight against the powers that be who are supposedly united in a global conspiracy against him. Pathetic. As an Indian (who’s also got an MIT degree BTW and knows just what others there think of this crackpot) I’m glad he was tossed out of CSIR. We don’t want such a-holes here; good riddance.

            The Boston Mag should be ashamed of its lede BTW: “the MIT lecturer who invented e-mail”? In what fantasy universe except Shiva’s own? What a loser.

    • Catherine Blythe

      Ms. Nanos thx for the reference to ! After reading it, I was very moved and inspired — V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai is clearly the inventor of email.

      It’s unfortunate that a bunch of bullies who support Raytheon/BBN think that they can continue to perpetuate false claims about email: and hijack the innovation from a 14-year-old boy, who in 1978, clearly is the father of email.


    • Julius Bass

      Hi AB,
      Yeah, well yeah, you know, they made Malcom X look crazy. But I wish Ms. Nanos researched the India piece better. If what happened in India was real, then Ayyadurai really risked his neck, and is like a modern day Martin Luther King, fighting for all our rights — but who will ever know…. My cousin is from there, and it is one corrupt country!

      • spandrelmatic

        Yes, Ayyadurai is just like Martin Luther King, Jr. Of course he is. Except, of course, that he would have sent an email, not a letter, from Birmingham Jail.

        Maybe you could squeeze Copernicus, Einstein and St. Francis in there too while you’re at it.

  • Miles Fidelman

    Kudos for doing your research, but I am curious as to why you’re providing so much ink to this guy. Isn’t the real story here one of how did the Washington Post, and other professional journalists, get flummoxed by a self-aggrandizing nut job – rather than yet more press for a guy who obviously has a few screws loose?

  • EarlyAdopter

    I can personally attest to the existence and established use of full-featured email systems before the young Shiva Ayyadurai began his project. In January 1977 I began a job at Bolt Beranek and Newman in Cambridge, MA, adding new capabilities to Hermes, a second-generation email program. It already did everything one would expect of any email program today – send and receive messages over the network, sort email into folders, implement memo-style address fields, use sophisticated search functions to retrieve stored messges, and so on. John Vittal, mentioned in this article, was a member of the project team. Email was in such widespread use among the ARPAnet community that on my first day at work it was found that my assigned email address had to be changed. This was some years before the Domain Name System was put into use. At BBN it was standard policy to use email addresses in the form lastname@bbn (no “.com”). Someone with the same last name had previously worked at BBN. The email system was sophisticated enough that it had been configured to forward emails sent to this other person on to him at his new employer, Xerox PARC. Now he started getting my emails too. I had to be assigned a new email address to get around the problem.

    In the technical and scientific community, taking credit for someone else’s work is about the worst thing anyone can do. That’s why so many are up in arms about Shiva Ayyadurai’s claim, myself included.

    As an aside, the reporter definitely got one thing wrong. Not everyone working on email technology and systems (let alone the ARPAnet) back in the 70’s was male. Perpetuating or worse, originating, that kind of generalization is, to me, a “math is hard” Barbie moment.

    • JCBrown

      Dear EarlyAdopter,
      Some facts about plagiarism and Raytheon/BBN. Read the facts and cry, cry, cry….

      FACT #1 – Hermes was a rudimentary text messaging system, not email. Stop lying, and misusing the term “email”, which did not exist prior to 1978, when Shiva came up with it and defined IT. I refer you to:

      FACT #2 – Raytheon/BBN is run by a plagiarist. I refer you to:

      FACT #3 – V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai invented email, which is by definition, the electronic interoffice, inter-organizational mail system. I refer you to:

      FACT #4 – Stop plagiarizing the work of a 14-year-old kid, you thieves !! Ray Tomlinson DID NOT invent email. In Newark, you’d be in jail, but at BBN, you get to be an overpaid CEO, I refer you to:

      Facts, facts, facts:

      Sorry…, name calling and making Ayyadurai look crazy, ain’t gonna cut it — you plagiarist, GET REAL

      • InventorOfFraud.Com

        Thanks Shiva. We appreciate your input.

    • JCBrown

      Dear EarlyAdopter,

      Some facts about plagiarism and Raytheon/BBN. Read the facts and cry, cry, cry….

      FACT #1 – Hermes was a rudimentary text messaging system, not email. Stop lying, and misusing the term “email”, which did not exist prior to 1978, when Shiva came up with it and defined IT. I refer you to:

      FACT #2 – Raytheon/BBN is run by a plagiarist. I refer you to:

      FACT #3 – V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai invented email, which is by definition, the electronic interoffice, inter-organizational mail system. I refer you to:

      FACT #4 – Stop plagiarizing the work of a 14-year-old kid, you thieves !! Ray Tomlinson DID NOT invent email. In Newark, you’d be in jail, but at BBN, you get to be an overpaid CEO, I refer you to:

      Facts, facts, facts:

      Sorry…, name calling and making Ayyadurai look crazy, ain’t gonna cut it — you plagiarist, GET REAL!

      • EarlyAdopter

        Post as many times as you wish and say whatever you may, but the facts are the facts and I was there, using email and developing software for a very sophisticated and full-featured email system before the young Shiva Ayyadurai embarked on his own project.

        I haven’t worked for BBN in many years and get no money from them or anyone else for saying this. My sole interest is as a professional who believes that credit should go where credit is due. In this case the credit for “invention” goes to the many people who, via collaboration and building on each others’ ideas and work, developed an application that truly has changed the world.

        The computer museum has a copy of the Hermes user manual, with copyright and publication dates prior to 1978. Short of reading the manual, people who are interested in learning about it and its degree of sophistication and functionality can search the Internet and find references and descriptions of it from that general period and draw their own conclusions.

        Similarly, people who are interested in the truth of the matter might search for ANY citation of Ayyadurai’s system in a peer-review technical publication – or, for that matter, any citation anyplace by someone who has provably been a practitioner in the field and who is not Shiva Ayyadurai or one of his associates citing his work as as basis or inspiration for their own. There are none.

        Is it even possible for there to be a vast conspiracy involving probably hundreds (or even more) people around the world who were involved in email back in the 70s to deny Shiva Ayyadurai his supposed place in history? Hardly. And why would they do that in the first place? Sheesh.

        The story of a 14-year old inventing something that changed the world is something that many would like to believe. It would be so inspiring if it were true. But, like a fairy tale, it simply isn’t.

  • Vellayappa

    I am Dr. Ayyadurai’s father. As an engineer for 50 years, anybody would be upset at having their work plagiarized. The term Email nor the invention did not exist prior to 1978.


    • Anmol@MIT

      “The term Email nor the invention did not exist prior to 1978.”

      Aww, got your old man to lie and upvote on your behalf too? Or is that you again, Shiva? Sickening.

  • Matthew Labrador

    I have been friends with Shiva since ’81. Shiva is a man of integrity who during our college days fought tirelessly against the racial and class injustices that have been perpetrated at MIT and in Boston in general.

    Such a man, in my view, could not be the fraud that others, doubtless with their own selfI -serving agendas, have labelled him.

    I told Janelle Nanos as much in my 45+ interview with her as she was researching this article.

    I must say I am disappointed with the bipolar tone the final article has taken, at first declaring Shiva the inventor of email, and later portraying his life as becoming unravelled and describing his fight to protect his legacy as “quixotic.”

  • Data Center Jesus

    Nice article clearly pointing out the very believable, but very late to the party, “inventor” of the word e-mail. All the fighting and complaining will not alter the fact that ARPANET was first with the computerized mailing systems. You don’t get to be called the inventor of the wheel just for coming up with the name and reinventing it after the fact. Grow up and get over it and get on with your career. The claims are now a joke and nothing will change this in the eyes of people who can see the timeline: email comes from the 60s and 70s ARPANET. Period. No one is out to get “brown people” I’m one of them, and very well respected in the computer industry. “Dr. Email” should do the same, for a change. The world is not out to get him, merely to allow him to come to the realization that he did not get to the mountain top first, or second. And accept the fact. You didn’t invent electronic mail messaging. You coined a nice term, be happy with that and invent another amazing tool and we’ll see how that goes.

  • JK

    Well, my first thought is, where is the now-ubiquitous e-mail system derived from? Has the current software/protocol system evolved from Ayyadurai’s EMAIL, or from the ARPANet system messaging, or from another source? What happened to Ayyadurai’s code and the system at the hospital? Did it grow and spread, or was it eventually replaced?

    • EarlyAdopter

      The system we all use today is an evolution of the system used on the ARPAnet in the 1970s, using revised/expanded versions of the protocol and message format standards that were used on the ARPAnet during that time. The standards, called RFCs, are readily available online. See, for example, RFC 733, published in November 1977 (before the young Shiva Ayyadurai began his project). It starts by saying which RFCs it replaces and notes that it was eventually replaced by RFC 822. You can get RFC 733 here:

      Note also that each of these documents cites other relevant work, much as a scientific paper would. There is no mention of Shiva Ayyadurai’s program at any point in the chain of RFCs starting from before 1978 and ending now.

      • JK

        Ah, very very interesting. Not just all the syntax and fields, but it states “This standard specifies a syntax for text messages which are
        passed between computer users within the framework of “electronic mail”.”
        I would guess the young Shiva studied this.

  • Anton Sherwood

    PLATO had “personal notes” by 1976, but I guess that doesn’t count because it wasn’t called “e-mail”.

  • Chris

    This guy owned a condo above me in Cambridge. I wouldn’t call him a constructive or helpful member of the condo association. Actually, an “asshole,” a “dick,” and a “loon” is right on. Sorry to see that so much press is being wasted on a fake.

    • John Rock

      well, at least he helped you to whine about him to your friends by inventing email. you have to be grateful to him

    • Wayne

      Hello Chris
      Are you an American…! I am not surprised to see your ‘Dick head’ and Oh… who is this… @The future Dick head…! You know who Tamils are… Go to Tamil Nadu, India and for your chance to see many American licking and Sucking Tamils for so many things. If I see… @You are dead.. man.

  • R. D

    This article is tilted. It tells the story as if a bunch of clubby nerds got together to deny an outsider’s claims instead of the story of how some of the most reputable institutions got taken in by some very dubious claims, to put it mildly. How has this charlatan managed to get the endorsement on his self promoting website of such a distinguished person as Noam Chomsky (if it is indeed legitimate)? Also many of the comments here supporting this man’s claims are suspicious. For e.g the one by the “Matthew Labrador” who claims to be a friend and colleague. I googled that name and the only credible reference I can find to this person comes from Mr Ayyadurai’s own resume page.
    There is obviously a great story here -one of fraud and delusion, that this magazine has failed to do justice to. Perhaps the NYTimes should do a story on this.

  • Natarajan

    I did not know about this Shiva Ayyadurai guy until and alas my wife read a tamil magazine (Tamil is an Indian language which is the mother tongue of this guy as well as me! and we are called as Tamilians in India!) and thanks to this guy we have had a dispute for the past 1 hour. Shiva’s claim at best is ludicrous. Now who cares who invented Email. Are we talking about a name? If two computers got to talk that is networking. Certainly a state of the art technology. When they talk if the application on the top is clumsy or sweet, if it is allowing certain features or not, makes the application better from a selling point but well that is no “state of the art” and certainly not any invention or discovery.
    Unfortunately in today’s so called fake geek world a Zuckerberg becomes famous for a Facebook then obviously there are fools thinking Zuckerberg is a Newton or an Einstein. Before that there were fools who thought Bill Gates was an Aryabhatta. Unfortunately Gates, Zuckerberg and our great Shiva are just creators of applications on top of a base. While an OS is more fundamental and so gates is certainly better (rather Paul Allen) Zuckerberg is like an artist using a paint and Shiva looks like an even more shadier guy who claims that he created Email.
    Honestly nobody can create Email beyond the fact that Arpanet allowed communication and that meant applications on top of it could communicate and the level of the ability to communicate by the application lets its survival. There are snobs who think TCP/IP is everything. Even those can be called as brighter than Zuckerberg and certainly Shiva. While designing any protocol is worth a Doctorate it is not an invention. Unfortunately I know folks who knew a set of socket calls and thought they knew TCP/IP because of that and so they are great.The story can go on and on and I will just talk about tamilians.
    There was a guy called as Ramar Pillai. He said he had found a way to get petroleum from certain leaves. This was way back in 70s/80s. Until it was proved that he was a bluff. There are scores of tamilians like Ramar and Shiva who claim tall for some local reasons of publicity. Unfortunatley Shiva sounds atleast educated (well shows how MIT takes any donkey!!) and unlike Ramar is an educated bluffer. The story can be extended from Tamil context to Indian context. While Infosys was a great venture and earned millions for its founders, Narayanamurthy was so hard up to try to be the President of India (la Schwarzenegger). Then his junior in Infosys one Nilekani is out to get the Indian govt with a project for UID (an identity card). What stupifies me is that Narayanamurthy and Nilekani are educated, very successful and have made money beyond their needs. They are pretty famous; yet want more fame. The story goes on and on. So it is no coincidence that a Shiva wants famous for something.
    What hurts me is, who the fuck cares about who invented Email? We just use it. I dont know who “invented” firefox (if I can say such shit!) and then who invented the screen that I am typing on and then who invented the words I am typing….ouch…I am feeling the pain.
    Shiva Ayyadurai will do better to be happy with what he has done in life. Why have his name written in history? After death that name wont be carried upwards! Just that many Indian politicians want statues for them and they feel that is great. Unfortunately what happens is that those statues serve as a place for birds to drop their faeces. I think the scenario is just that.
    Nowhere am I saying this ends with Indians. It is true about Americans and the rest of the world. Only that the intelligence to come up with as absurd an invention as Herbal Petrol of Ramar Pillai or of “inventing” Email by Shiva Ayyadurai is genuinely special. You Americans need to learn from Indians, particularly Tamilians how to create fame out of thin air. ROTFL.

    • MandailaOruKuttu

      I think you need to research this more before opening your mouth.

      >Honestly nobody can create Email beyond the fact that Arpanet allowed communication

      If 2 plates come together to create friction and stop a wheel from spinning does it mean brakes were invented?

  • Shiva Modi

    It’s not a good idea to use a technology invented by such a moron. Any alternatives?

  • MandailaOruKuttu

    >Honestly nobody can create Email beyond the fact that Arpanet allowed communication

    If 2 plates come together to create friction and stop a wheel from spinning does it mean brakes were invented?

  • Delondi Ngoma Kintaudi

    This is a horrible article. Sure he may be arrogant (he was only 14 when he invented email) but he’s right. I visited and the guy invented email. All these old revisionists trying to discredit him is downright sad and enraging. I can understand why people want to take credit for his work, but everything before his program was more or less simple text messaging. This guy developed a full fledged email system (Inbox, Outbox, forwarding, etc) at the age of 14…hopefully he’s able to put in work with the USPS….

  • Daiyu Hurst

    The earliest known email system was written by Tom Van Vleck and the late Noel Morris for the CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) in 1965. See

  • Some Where

    Boston Magazine can’t even hide behind laziness on this one. There is no reputable disagreement about the invention of email. Ayyadurai had nothing to do with it whatsoever. Giving credence to his fraudulent claims only serves to spread misinformation. Shame on Boston Magazine.

  • pyrosphere

    There is a deeper issue here than whom is right, and that is that this dispute has not progressed in as civil a manner as it could have.

    This sort of dispute should be solved by willingness of all sides to be open with regard to the evidence and their particular arguments, allowing facts to be made public and to speak for themselves. Instead Shiva’s detractors have chosen to defame him personally and divert attention from him.

    That is not the way any man whom is both honest and honorable, should proceed.

  • joe

    “Shiva is the lord of Creation and Destruction in Hindu religion …” interesting. Is that his sister airing her ignorance?

    • Anmol@MIT

      Hardly surprising. Looks like it runs in the family.